Thursday, May 21, 2020
When you hear the word vampire you probably think of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern charters, from Twilight or True Blood. According to the article Ã¢â¬Å"Blood Ties, The vampire LoverÃ¢â¬ By Helen T. Bailie, TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s vampires make up book 53% of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s book sells. Vampires in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s image have become creatures of lust, the dream man of teenage girls all over the world. Before pop culture took over vampires in stories, were monsters of horror. Pre-dating todayÃ¢â¬â¢s pop culture fad, vampires were used to explain things that people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand, something scary and unknown. So what has caused all theses changes in vampire stories over time? Changing them from feared unknown demons to every teens heartthrob. To find out where the change came from weÃ¢â¬â¢ll look atÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(Keyworth 243). Most deaths did occur because of being around old corpses but generally because of the diseases that they carried. An anonymous monk at Byland Ab bey wrote majority of the stories of vampires. The monks and high relgious leaders of these towns came up with these legends because they believed in vampires, but they also used them to control the people of their town. By doing the right thing during life you could prevent yourself from becoming a vampire in the afterlife. So basically the religious leaders played on the fears of the towns people to keep them in church and keep them in line. One of the more famous stories of this time was of two brothers that fell down dead one day and were buried only to be seen later that night walking through the town. (Keyworth 245). These stories spread and eventually the whole world was on vampire alert. These stories continued well on into the 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s eventually dying off slowly as the scientist learned more about humans, the body and how it worked. The first shift in these stories was from the tales of monks to an actual novel written by Bram Stocker. Dracula, a story still talked a but today, Dracula was really the introductory novel to bring vampires into fiction works. The story of a man that travels to buy property in Transylvania from Count Dracula, realizing shortly after getting to the castle thatShow MoreRelatedVampires And Its Effects On Society1318 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshad gotten more attention in recent years are vampires. Vampires have changed from scary monster to attractive dead people because of how the media portrays them now a day. Some people are fascinated by this monster so much that some have created cults saying they are vampires too. The thing people have to understand is that vampires have never existed and were just created to explain the unexplainable. According to the Oxford English Dictionary vampires are defined as Ã¢â¬Å"A preternatural being of a malignantRead MoreEssay on The Effects of Modern Vampires on Society1980 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagespopular with the Twilight books, which were released in 2005. Since then, the vampire-and other supernatural creature-themed fantasy romance novels have been extremely popular all over the world. According to statistics brought out by Romance Writers of America, in 2009, the paranormal subgenre made up 17.16% of the popular romance genre, which in itself 54% of all books sold by the publishing industry.(Bailie) Vampires have come a long way from the 19th century until nowadays. Not so long ago theyRead MoreThe Opposition Of Dracula And Its Influences On Vampire Literature1467 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDracula and its influences on vampire literature Have you ever thought to yourself, what has influenced vampire literature today? Well, neither have I, but it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt to touch on the subject. Dracula introduces the idea of lust and death within vampirism. Also, there are many connections that I make throughout this essay between Dracula and I am Legend, proving that Dracula was an influence on the book. The opposition of Dracula has had great influences on vampire literature.We see that theseRead MoreComparing Dracula, And I Am Legend By Richard Matheson1584 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSince the beginning of time vampires have been categorized into different typesÃ¢â¬ and are portrayed in different ways throughout several books. This paper will focus on three vampires from the following books: Dracula by Bram Stoker, and I am Legend by Richard Matheson. Dracula is considered to be the traditional vampire, where it all started, and the vampires in MathesonÃ¢â¬â¢s book, follow somewhat StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s concept, but is more of a modern Ã¢â¬Å"typeÃ¢â¬ of vampires. Certain vampire elements have been presentedRead MoreDracula vs Blade1516 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescreate a story, and for someone else to evolve them. Events occurring within society and the way people perceive otherÃ¢â¬â¢s at a time also contributes majorly to the development of modernity. Bram StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Ã¢â¬ËDraculaÃ¢â¬â¢ and David GoyerÃ¢â¬â¢s film Ã¢â¬ËBlade TrinityÃ¢â¬â¢ contrast significantly as a result of difference in context. Weaponry had developed immensely over the two stories to cater for the advancements from one classic vampire to a fresh, modern, powerful one. The story of Ã¢â¬ËDraculaÃ¢â¬â¢, set in VictorianRead MoreAn Argument: Do Vampires Exist?1024 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDo Vampires Exist: Or Bite Me! Since the beginning or recorded history, there have been stories told about vampires. Bram StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s renowned novel Dracula was published in 1897, and since then the myth about vampires has evolved and changed. We now have Stephanie MeyerÃ¢â¬â¢s Twilight Saga and HBOÃ¢â¬â¢s True Blood examining whether vampires exist in the known world. Whatever you think, you should be aware that vampires are creations of fiction writers based on old folk tales. On the other hand there areRead MoreA Girl Walks Home Alone At Night1735 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescomes across a mysterious lady dressed in all black. He takes her to his place thinking that they will have sex. But, the mysterious lady grows fangs and sucks on HosseinÃ¢â¬â¢s neck; killing him. The mysterious ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s name is never revealed but she is a vampire who kills men that mistreats or belittles women. Although, she comes across Arash, she sees vulnerability in him and he seems different than all the other men that she has come across. They become close throughout the movie, as the mysterious womanRead More Buffys Deeper Meanings Essay744 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages With Buffy the Vampire Slayer taking the Australian television market by storm, it is becoming increasingly obvious that Buffy does more than just kick vampire butt. Star Sarah Michelle Gellar not only entertains teens nation wide, but also questions morals and values Ã¢â¬â the same values that have been plaguing the gothic genre since Bram StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dracula Ã¢â¬â and socialises with the majority of young AustraliansÃ¢â¬â¢ lives. Popular culture is becoming increasingly consumed by a moralistic tone, and BuffyRead MoreThe Vampires Are Now A Metaphor Of Human Beings1615 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe Gothic literature, the vampires have moved from being a peripheral element with the genre to a place near the center and are capable of generating its own massive tradition now. In the recent literary history, they have already been adapted to play a role of a rebel against the moral, social, religious, and even sexual taboos. Put simply, the vampires are now a metaphor of human beings in the modern society and life. With the publication and popularity of The Vampire Chronicles, especially thatRead MoreThe Subculture I Choose Is Vampire Lifestyle843 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesculture. The subculture I choose is Vampire Lifestyle. In this essay, I will talk about the theoretical perspective, what is culture and how it connect with counter culture, how it has been affected by the consumerism and how it held together by the cultural capital. I choose the symbolic interactionism for my theoretical perspective. From sociological perspective, symbolic interactionism most concerned with the face-to-face interaction between members of society. Symbolic interaction reminds us
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Scottsville Textile Mill Case MGM 350 Production Schedule and loom assignment Decision Variable X1: Yards of fabric 1 on dobbie loom X2: Yards of fabric 2 on dobbie loom X3: Yards of fabric 3 on dobbie loom X4: Yards of fabric 4 on dobbie loom X5: Yards of fabric 5 on dobbie loom X6: Yards of fabric 3 on regular loom X7: Yards of fabric 4 on regular loom X8: Yards of fabric 5 on regular loom X9: Yards of fabric 1 purchased X10: Yards of fabric 2 purchased X11: Yards of fabric 3 purchased X12: Yards of fabric 4 purchased X13: Yards of fabric 5 purchased Profit Contribution per yard |Fabric |Manufacturing (Selling-Variable) |PurchasingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦X1+X9=16500 X2+X10=22000 X3+X6+X11=62000 X4+X7+X12=7500 X5+X8+13=62000 0.216X1+0.216X2+0.191X3+0.19X4+0.24X5Ã¢â° ¦5760 0.19X6+0.19X7+0.24X8Ã¢â° ¦21600 X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7, X8, X9, X10, X11, X12, X13Ã¢â° §0 [pic] [pic] Project Contribution to Profit Objective Function=62548.860 X1=4666.67, X2=22000, X3=0, X4=0, X5=0, X6=27868.421, X7=7500, X8=62000, X9=11833.333, X10=0, X11=34131.579, X12=0, X13=0 So it means Yards of fabric 1 on dobbie loom is 4666.67; Yards of fabric 2 on dobbie loom is 22000; Yards of fabric 3 on dobbie loom is 0; Yards of fabric 4 on dobbie loom is 0; Yards of fabric 5 on dobbie loom is 0; Yards of fabric 3 on regular loom is 27868.421; Yards of fabric 4 on regular loom is 7500; Yards of fabric 5 on regular loom is 62000; Yards of fabric 1 purchased is 11833.333; Yards of fabric 2 purchased is 0; Yards of fabric 3 purchased is 34131.579; Yards of fabric 4 purchased is 0; Yards of fabric 5 purchased is 0. Additional loom time If there is a ninth dobbie loom, the total work hours will be 6480 (9*24*30=6480), still in the range of [4756, 8316], so the optimal solution is the same. So the new objective function is 62548.86+0.648*(6480-5760) =63015.42 Objective Coefficient range Yards of fabric 1 on dobbie loom [0.315, 0.34] Yards of fabric 2 on dobbie loom [0.3, unlimited] Yards of fabric 3 on dobbie loom [unlimited, 0,624] Yards of fabric 4 on dobbie loom [unlimited, 0.714] Yards
Macroeconomic study of deal not with Individual but aggregate of these quantities not with Individual Incomes but nation incomes not with Individual output but with the nation output Macroeconomic as two policies which are; Financial or monetary macroeconomic policies: The government can make the balance of how money can be supply. The money can be supply In three term which are: OMO- Open Market Operation Reserve requirement Interest Rate OMO can supply money Into the bank through central bank example the BOT can sell the shared to the bank at the lower price who can be faced the Inflation and then hat central bank can buy to the higher price theory. In microeconomics the behavior can depend on how they make decision on choice of the good but in the microeconomics it not consider the 1 OF3 Inalvlaual Denavlor It cons10er aoout tne tne wnole nation Microeconomics is the study of decision that people and business make regarding the allocation of resource and price of good and services . We will write a custom essay sample on Macroeconomic or any similar topic only for you Order Now This can means also taking into account taxes and regulation created by government. Macroeconomic focused on the supply and demand and other forces that determine the price level seen in he economy. For example microeconomics would look at how a specific company could maximize its production and capacity so it could lower price and better compete in its industry Macroeconomic on the other hand is it the field of economic that studies the behavior of the economy as a whole and not Just on the specific companies but the entire industries and economic . This look at economy-wide phenomena such as Gross Nation Product (GDP) and how its affected by changes in unemployment, nation income, rate growth, and price level . For example , macroeconomic would look t how an increase/decrease in net export would affect the nation capital account or how GDP would be affected by unemployment. What are the determinants of economic growth and living standard in a country in macroeconomic are used in determine to know why this country is more develop than other country are used macroeconomic. For example why Kenya are more develop than Tanzanian country is this how can be used or. Since a century ago developed nation have achieved a high rate of economic growth which in turn raised people standard of living macroeconomic examines the reasons behind the speedy conomic growth in the developed nations and understand the reason why this growth is different between the various countries Productivity The average labor productivity or the output of a single worker is important to determine the standard of living macroeconomic will question the factor which decide on the employee productivity growth rate macroeconomic is seen the one worker or single worker in order to determine the average of the worker in the economic that can assure the economic product of the nation or the whole can grow or not in yht area What are the cause of the decline and growth in an economic ny economy will surely go through decline and growth in relation to this macroeconomic will look at the cause of these changes in the economic and the government policies that can be implement to overcome an economic problem wnat are Tactor wnlcn affectlng unemployment Rate of unemployment means there is an available work force that wants to work but has no Jobs the rate of unemployment will increase when the economic situation is good macroeconomic will examine the reasons for unemployment types of unemployment and ways to overcome unemployment What are factor that cause the general price level or inflation to rise Inflation is an increase in the general price level which is usually measured by changes in the consumer price index the question asked in a macroeconomic analysis are 1 . what are factor affecting inflation. 2. Why does inflation rate differ from time to time 3. why does inflation rate fro one country to another The macroeconomic does not look for the one person or individual s a policy but can be used to all people For instances if a national saving is increased at the cost of individual welfare it is not considered a wise policy The macroeconomic analysis regard aggregate as homogenous but does not into its internal composition For instance if the wages of the clerks fall and the wages of the teachers rise the average wage may remain the same It is not necessary that aggregate variable are important. For instance nation income is the total of the individual income if the nation income in the country goes up it is no necessary that the income of all individual in the country will also rise there is possibility that that the rise in nation income may be due to the increase in the income of a few rich families of the country How to cite Macroeconomic, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Introduction Margaret Fuller and Walt Whitman stand out as two ancient literature goons who have done various works in literature and ones who appreciation for what they did. They feature some resemblances as well as contradictions in their works in the way they employs the different aspects of literature such as styles, settings, plots and even their themes.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Great Lawsuit by Margaret Fuller and The Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, it is important to study deeper the literal works of the two in order to get clear similarities or differences if any in their works. The theme that this discussion will zero on is on the oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self or rather individuality or the unit of self as it appears as a common theme in The Great Lawsuit by Margaret Fuller and The Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman. The two writers have in depth touched on the the me of self in their works. It therefore provides a good point or basis of analyzing and comparing some commonness and contradictions that stand based on the theme. Comparison Fuller has remained one of the well remembered writer who laid a foundation in the securing and elevating women in society. The culture and traditions that are in place has positioned women in some sort of slavery and demeanor. Through her book Ã¢â¬Å"The Great LawsuitsÃ¢â¬ she points out the disadvantages that women face when it comes to matters of legal due to cultural confinements. For instance, she expresses in the book that women do not hold properties on equal grounds or terms as their male counterparts and incase their husbands pass away, they are allowed to inherit part of the property for instance a child but not everything (Fuller 1627). Therefore, the difference, which exists between the men and the women, is based on the self or rather the individuality of male in their thinking. This belief by t he male counterparts to have an upper hand in all sectors or areas in life is what dominates in her book. She is of the view that there is a greater need for such individuality, which is held by men to come to an end. This can only be witnessed by woman taking a role in educating and elevating their women counterparts so us they can be able to act independently, empowered and make decision solely as equals as their male counterparts does. Therefore, the author throughout this theme clearly exposes the imbalance that society is undergoing. Likewise, WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s preface to the 1855 edition, of Leaves of Grass has a greater part on the theme of individuality or self. Although the book has many categories of poems, most of the poems touch on this theme of individuality and self.Advertising Looking for essay on comparative literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, in the inscriptions, the poem Ã¢â¬Å"I hear Ame rica singingÃ¢â¬ the author, Whitman has in length elaborated on the theme of individuality. He hears the carols of all people singing, people who contribute to the culture and life of America. The voices or carols are sung by mechanics, masons, carpenters, shoemakers and all categories of people. The singing by these various people expresses their happiness and joy illustrating a sense of individuality in terms of women and men as every person sings what belongs to her or him as opposed to any other person. There is therefore a sense of self and individualism in the way people behaves. Every person is trying to play his or her part solely in order to achieve satisfactions. Therefore, the two authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ take on this aspect of individualism is to greater level similar. They both have some commonness through how individuals navigate other ways to consider their own way or life without necessarily putting in minds the needs and desires of their colleagues. For instance, FullerÃ ¢â¬â¢s theme of individuality shows clearly how women plot and should act in order to regain their position in society. It will take their own initiative to be where they want to be. If they do not cooperate towards one common goal they may continue to remain in their current positions, as their male counterparts continue to dominate and under regard them in the society. On the other hand, WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s theme on individuality is also clear as every individual is more concerned about his or her own interests in life and therefore does something that better interests him/her. Therefore, there is a good percentage of comparison between the works of these two authors. Contrasts There also exists some level of contrasts in the theme of self unit or individuality that the two authors portray. For instance, Fuller is more concerned about the future of the women. She is categorically concerned about the plight of the women and therefore agitates for their own liberations from slavery t hat has been imposed by the culture and the traditions which have over looked their rightful share in the day to day life. Fuller sees self not necessarily as a divine being but she is optimistic that man and men and woman and women share some commonness and therefore there is need for both of them to have some equality in the way they relate, and in everything they do. The way the society has placed boundaries between them should not be tolerated but rather they need to be one in their soul and in whatever they does.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Great Lawsuit by Margaret Fuller and The Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Opportunities should be availed to both of them as opposed to men only. Therefore, this is one of the contrasts that stand between her and WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s poems in the Leaves of Grass who sees self as a composition of both spirit and physical. According to W hitman, self is about individual identity of a man, including his being and quality (Stacy 1850). These attributes are different from those of other people, which clearly illustrates that there is no way in which the self of one person may be similar to that of another person. Therefore, by being self, a person will possess quality attributes that will not conform to other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs. This contradicts with FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s view of the same in her book, Ã¢â¬Å"The Great LawsuitsÃ¢â¬ . Furthermore, Whitman is of the view that self aspect of a person is just a portion or part of the divine soul of an individual. This is demonstrated through the way Whitman has referred in most of his work using Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ , which shows that though it is universal, it is part of the divine. FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of self solely was based on the sense of gender and the traditional meaning attributed to these two different sexes. She only postulated or affirms the important of a t ime when these discriminations based on the roles and gender will come to an end through embracing of oneness and avoiding selfness or rather selfishness. She therefore wishes to see a country where by people will be united and embrace change in which both men and women will be allowed or availed to equal rights and freedom in the society. The slavery and seclusions that are witnessed because of the traditional stereotypes should be brought to an end with people or society embracing new forms of viewing the aspect of self. On the other hand, Whitman sees self as an intrinsic part of human being and as something which is both physical and spiritual hence claiming that due to these differences, people have different selves and therefore not concerned about the personÃ¢â¬â¢s gender or role. Conclusion Form this discussion, it is evident that these two authors, Fuller and Whitman, have to some extend featured some similarities in their theme of self in their works. These perhaps can b e explained because of their setting and the traditional at their time. Their society and the traditional, past information may have grounded them in thinking in this same line. However, though their thinking did resemble, there is also instances where some differences elicited especially on the idea of self. For instance, Whitman is of the view that self is something that consist of spiritual and physical while Fuller mostly zeroes on the physical aspects of self or individuality.Advertising Looking for essay on comparative literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The two authors play a great role in shaping the understanding of life and human aspects in the current world through their deeply thought out work. The society nowadays is able to relate positively with each other and embrace every other personÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts, complexities and perspective of opinions. This understanding and the embracing of one another or rather the democracy being enjoyed todayÃ¢â¬â¢s should be credited to these two writers. They are role models whose work deserves appreciation. Works Cited Fuller, Margaret. The Great Lawsuit. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 2003. 1620-1654. Stacy, Jason. Walt WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Multitudes: Labor Reform and Persona in WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Journalism and the First Leaves of Grass, 1840-1855. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2008. This essay on The Great Lawsuit by Margaret Fuller and The Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman was written and submitted by user Chace F. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Performance Management Ã¢â¬â HR Free Online Research Papers Performance Management Abstract The paper seeks to show that Effective Performance Management has become the core of Human Resources and is revitalizing, reenergizing and rejuvenating HR. The challenges faced by the present day organization are broadly discussed under the effectiveness of its performance management systems, which ultimately acts as a catalyst for employee engagements and their effective performance. This paper explores through its findings a new performance management system for improving overall organizational performance in general, through inventing new dimension for effective individual performances in specific. A framework is developed for the implementation of effective performance management in any organization. This paper is explicitly directed towards various parameters for energising human resources and serves interesting food for thought for the future managers dealing with performance management. Introduction Performance management, as pertaining to human resource management (HRM), is the process of delivering sustained success to organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ by improving capabilities of individuals and teams. It supports the philosophical principle that people and not capital provide organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ with a competitive advantage. However, performance management presents severe challenges in terms of practical implementation. Previous studies have largely failed to overcome many of the organizational constraints on its successful implementation. Overcoming barriers to change is especially important given their close relationship to the fulfilment of the psychological contract and related HRM systems (reward, development, etc.). The psychological contract construct consists of the existence of a Ã¢â¬Å"softÃ¢â¬ set of expectations held by the employee, which have to be organized and managed. Within the relationship defined by these constructs, the employer and the employee inform, negotia te, monitor and then re-negotiate (or exit) the employment relationship. Thus, if the employee feels that a performance management approach breaches or violates their psychological contract expectations this can lead to an irrevocable breakdown in the employment relationship. Careful implementation of performance tools is therefore crucial to their success as contributors to organizational development. Performance Management as a core of HR Performance appraisals, performance reviews, appraisal forms; whatever we want to call them, letÃ¢â¬â¢s call them gone. As a standalone, a performance appraisal is universally disliked, after all how many people in any organization want to hear that they were less than perfect last year or how many managers want to face the argument and diminish morale that can result from the performance appraisal process. If the true goal of the performance appraisal is employee development and organizational improvement, we consider moving to effective performance management system. There has been a paradigm shift in the focus of HR from the early days where craftspeople organized guilds using unity to improve working conditions. Companies in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s era focus on performance of employees which in turn helps the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. No doubt that effective performance management has become a core of HR. Performance management to support organizational change The ultimate competitive asset of any organization is its people, thus organizations should develop employee competencies in a manner aligned with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s business goals. This can be achieved through performance management systems, which act as both behavioural change tool and enabler of performance management system improved organizational performance through being instrumental in driving change. This can then be institutionalized through organizational policies, systems and structures. Performance management aims to emphasize and encourage desired and valued behaviours, thus is a key tool of communication and motivation within organizations seeking a competitive edge through strategic change and control. A visionary performance management then becomes a system for translating organizational intention and ambition into action and results, delivering a strategic goal, such as behavioural change. The system also brings focus to organisational change and development, particularly regarding competencies. When competency profiles support company goals, they become instrumental in developing the human resources necessary to deliver business goals. As a result, performance management system is an important tool for communicating priorities and for providing feedback to stimulate employees to meet the new expectations. Role and importance of effective performance management system Changing individual employee behaviour lies at the heart of organizational change programmes. This is because they ignore or violate established change psychology principles. Senior management can assume that because they are ready to pro-actively embrace change, their employees will be equally pro-active. However, imposing action on employees who are not prepared results in conflict. Typically, only 20 percent of employees in organizations are prepared to take positive action in response to change initiatives. More than 70 percent of new strategic initiatives fail for this reason.4 Thus, to be successful in shaping behaviour, performance management systems must achieve acceptance by those being Ã¢â¬Å"managedÃ¢â¬ . Modern organizations need to respond more effectively to changing external and internal environments, and organizational learning has become an important strategic focus. By anticipating and responding to changes in the environment through proactive learning interventions, some organizations are evolving into learning organizations. Nonetheless, the question of how to best transform behaviours through organizational learning and development remains. In reality, many change initiatives fail because either organizational culture is not ready to change at that time, or because they do not anticipate the impact of change on human systems. Initiatives in the latter category typically result in resistance and ultimately failure of the change initiative. As mentioned earlier, one method that organizations can use to affect employee competencies in a manner aligned with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s change is to develop robust performance management systems. Analysis of performance management in terms of key result area KRAÃ¢â¬â¢s refer to general areas of outcomes or outputs for which a role is responsible. The KRAÃ¢â¬â¢s should be clearly defined. Once, the KRAÃ¢â¬â¢s are defined the individual can chart a process to achieve the KRAÃ¢â¬â¢s. KRAÃ¢â¬â¢s are also known as Key Work OutputÃ¢â¬â¢s (KWOÃ¢â¬â¢s). An effective performance management system can facilitate change and innovation by both demonstrating their relationship with the overall strategy, and by supporting and monitoring the progress towards achieving the ultimate goal. It is therefore a crucially important tool for communicating priorities and for providing feedback on employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ contributions towards achieving organizational goals. The purpose of the performance management system is to ensure that the work performed by employees is in accordance with the established objectives of the company. Employees should have a clear understanding of the quality and quantity of work expected from them and simultaneously receives ongoing information about how effectively they are standing as to the standards/benchmarks. Opportunities for employee development are identified and employee performance that does not meet standards is appropriately addressed. Moreover an operative performance management system consists of a process for communicating employee performance expectations, maintaining performance management dialogues and conducting annual performance appraisals. It is a procedure for encouraging and facilitating employee development and resolving performance pay disputes. Performance management system serves a strategic purpose because they help link employee activities with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and goals. It serves as a basis for employment decisions to promote outstanding performers, to train, transfer or discipline others, and to award merit increases. Data regarding employee performance can serve as criteria in HR research. They can help establish objectives for training programs. Finally, performance management system allows organizations to keep proper records to document HR decisions and legal requirements. A research conducted on BSE listed companies revealed the four key result areas that are critical for any performance management system and how each of these areas which has a number of dimensions, can be measured by key performance indicators. The four key result areas are as follows: I. Developing external relationship: The PMS should consider the three key performance indicators while considering employee performance to achieve the KRA of developing external relationship: firstly, contractual agreements i.e. managing policy and procedures for agreements which are implemented and reviewed annually and handling major research contracts renewed with stakeholders. Secondly, to create new strategic alliances such as its success can be measured by reviewing annually the number of competitor or collaborator analysis undertaken and new collaborations established and developed and finally to develop lines of communication such as quarterly reviewing, the visits made by the shareholders and information about research and education activities provided to stakeholders in written and electronic format. Communicating this Idea to employees and evaluating their commitment levels through structured parameters will help in achieving organisational objective. II. Building organisational capabilities: Similarly, PMS has to also consider dimensions such as to attract and retain the right people i.e. to review annually so as to identify and resolve gaps in the performance of the leaders and provide and implement strategic, analysis based advice performance management system for all staffs. Secondly, the system fosters a value driven culture which includes code of conduct developed around share values, rewarding employees and implementing a recognition system to reinforce culture. Finally, it creates a supportive structure and systems which includes implementation of most effective organisational structure, reviewing annually the policies, systems and procedural documented. This KRA will finally contribute towards enhancing skill based performance for quality work. III. Taking a selective and focussed approach: The PMS should check the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s work focus which can be measured by reviewing annually the service level agreements and how these agreements are benefiting the key stakeholders. In the light of this KRA the employees are able to meet up to the expectations of their job description and accordingly see and evaluate their respective performances as a transparent system. IV. Maintaining quality research, service and education output: The last key area helps to ensure relevance to the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission by consistent work with strategic direction and available skills. Performance management can be measured through milestones achieved. Also, it measures work impact which can in turn be measured through new knowledge that is being published or presented, identification of changes to policies or practices and finally customer satisfaction which can be measured with the help of surveys conducted. This will contribute towards managing talent in the organisation and exploring opportunities for potential employees and also for succession planning. BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTING EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS7:- 1. Organizational Barriers Ã¢â¬â Variations in performance within systems may be due to common causes or special causes. Common causes are faults that are built into the system due to prior decisions, defects in materials, flaws in the design of the system, or some other managerial shortcoming. Special causes are those attributable to a particular event, a particular operator, or a subgroup within the system. 2. Political Barriers Ã¢â¬â Political considerations are organizational facts of life. Appraisals take place in an organisational environment that is anything but completely rational, straight-forward, or dispassionate. It appears that achieving accuracy in appraisal is less important to managers than motivating and rewarding their subordinates. Many managers will not allow excessively accurate ratings to cause problems for themselves. 3. Interpersonal Barriers Ã¢â¬â Interpersonal barriers also may hinder the performance management process. Because of a lack of communication, employees may think they are being judged according to one set of standards when their superiors actually use different ones. Furthermore, supervisors often delay or resist making face-to-face appraisals. Rather than confronting substandard performers with low ratings, negative feed-back, and below-average salary increases, supervisors often find it easier to Ã¢â¬Å"damn with faint praiseÃ¢â¬ by giving average or above-average salary ratings to inferior performers. Performance Managers Performance managers can improve on a performance measurement system, as objectively as possible, upon discussion with the line managers. They need to clearly define the role for each position in the organisation, and communicate the positions to the new entrants respectively. They may formulate a reward system that is in tune with industry standards, and companys retention and performance strategy, and take local and overseas opportunities as factors of consideration. As facilitators of training and development activities, they may identify their teamsÃ¢â¬â¢ individual training needs which may involve technological, behavioural or cross-cultural contents. As career counsellors, they may develop different career paths technical or managerial, and attempt to satisfy the needs of the employees. Ã¢â¬Å"The Indian IT industry has set an exceptionally high standard with regard to workplace and employee practices. With the continued growth and rapid evolution of the industry, as well as the changing aspirations of its young workforce, IT companies small or large will have to constantly look at innovation to excel as employers,Ã¢â¬ said Kiran Karnik, president, Nasscom, in a statement. Small and medium-sized IT and business outsourcing companies are constantly looking at adopting best practices such as innovative performance appraisal system, individual career development programmes and recreational activities, to make themselves more attractive to employees in a fiercely competitive market, says a survey on exciting emerging companies in India conducted by the National Association of Software and Services Companies (Nasscom). At the BPO company, which has seen its attrition rate coming down to 8% from 28% last year, employees are encouraged to post their feedback anonymously, which is taken up by teams that can address it the best. By creatively designing the total reward package towards more short-term incentives and benefits, and linking the package to performance, companies can ensure that they get higher productivity without hefty increases in salary costs and minimise attrition costs at the same time. The general parameters for the measurement of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance in BPOÃ¢â¬â¢s are: Speed i.e. process performance, Accuracy and Productivity of each process, Although the measuring parameters are different for employees at different level, but the general classification of the above mentioned parameters for Ã¢â¬Å"Customer care ExecutivesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Team leadersÃ¢â¬ are as follows: Average Call Value (the sales made or the revenue collected etc.) Time and cost per call Average Handling Time (talk time and after call wrap up) Adherence to Schedule (availability to take calls etc.) Percentage of abandoned calls Discipline Attendance According to a recent survey Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"The Pay for Performance can be as much as 22% of the salary.Ã¢â¬ Thus, good performance is highly rated in the IT and BPO industry. Recommendations for effective performance management:- 1) Senior management should show commitment Ã¢â¬â The process of performance management within the company lacks participation and benefits none without active senior management support and leadership. 2) Employee resistance should be kept minimal Ã¢â¬â PMS is made for aligning the goals of employee and the organization, thus, effective performance management system is only going to be effective when employees understand the importance of performance management system in their own careers. 3) Training infrastructure and capacity building programs Ã¢â¬â Surprisingly, given the level of resources provided for the rollout of the new performance management system, employees at every level of the organization appear to lack the necessary knowledge and skills required for their particular contribution to the system. 4) Benchmarking Ã¢â¬â Effective performance management can only be sustained when the performances are compared with the standards set in the organization and as this is done on a continuous basis, this leads to improvement of performance and brings it closer to the benchmark set by the organization. 5) 3rd axis measurement Ã¢â¬â If performance is to be measured on a two axis system, organizational goals and employee performance for these goals respectively, then a 3rd axis also needs to be measured which is employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s personal goals, because then only performance can be measured in true terms. Conclusion: We conclude the research by stressing effective performance management is a key tool of communication and motivation within organizations seeking a competitive edge through strategic change and control. The framework for performance management system design has its core element as improving individual performance in accordance with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance, keeping in mind employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s personal goals. Overcoming barriers to change through winning the psychological battle of employee involvement by effective performance and evaluating parameters has become the need of the hour. The KRAÃ¢â¬â¢s that determine the effectiveness of a PMS are, Developing external relationship Communicating this Idea to employees and evaluating their commitment levels through structured parameters will help in achieving organisational objective. Building organisational capabilities This KRA contributes in enhancing skill based performance for quality work. Taking a selective and focussed approach and maintaining quality research Ã¢â¬â This KRA provides a transparent system for evaluation of employee performance in terms of job description. Service and education output Ã¢â¬â This KRA contributes in managing talent in the organization. The afore said KRAs as discussed in full length are only suggestive in nature .The final implementation may be based on some primary research over the aforesaid parameters so that its contribution may ultimately result into epitomizing performance for establishing a cognitive environment. References:- 1. think.exist.com 2. Mei-I Cheng De Montfort University, Implementing a new performance management system within a project-based organization -A case study. 3. about.com/humanresources. 4. trackers.in 6. Wayne F. Cascio and Herman Aguinis, Applied Psychology in Human Resources Management Ã¢â¬â sixth edition/ (CH-5) P-85 7. ibm.com/services/strategy/industries/chemicals. 8. pwc.com/ng/PwC Nigeria Ã¢â¬â HRS brochure. Research Papers on Performance Management - HRThe Project Managment Office SystemOpen Architechture a white paperIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaDefinition of Export QuotasPETSTEL analysis of IndiaStandardized TestingComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever Product
Monday, March 2, 2020
History Day - Primary and Secondary Sources When studying and learning about history, we must always be questioning the quality of our sources. Who wrote this?How do they know the information they are telling me?When did they write it?Why did they write it?Who did they write it for? These are good questions to ask yourself about every book you read. We should never believe everything we read; you should question everything. Is it inherently impossible for an author to leave out some sort of bias. It is your responsibility to determine their bias and to reflect on how it affected their work. Now Im sure youre wondering why Ive told you all this before I explain the differences between primary and secondary sources. I promise, there is a reason. For every source you use, you will need to think of the questions above to determine which category they fit into - primary or secondary - and how much you can trust what they say. Primary Sources Primary sources are informational sources from the time of the event. Examples of primary sources: AutobiographiesDiariesDocumentsEyewitness accountsFilm footageLawsLettersNewspaper articlesNovelsObjects from the timeOral historiesPhotographsPoems, art, musicSpeeches Secondary Sources Secondary sources are informational sources that analyze the event. These sources often use several primary sources and compile the information. Examples of secondary sources: BiographiesEncyclopediasHistory booksTextbooks More Hints, Help, and Informational Tidbits Overview of History DayDo you have a good topic?How do you make an annotated bibliography?
Friday, February 14, 2020
Security Solutions for MANETs (mobile ad-hoc networks) including the development of IDS - Research Paper Example Moreover, these diverse issues obviously formulate a situation for developing multi-fence safety answers that attain both wide security as well as enviable network performance (Yang, Luo, Ye, lLu, & Zhang, 2004) and (Nash, 2000). This paper presents a comprehensive analysis mobile ad hoc security issues and offers security solutions for MANETs (mobile ad-hoc networks) including the development of IDS (Intrusion Detections System). This paper is aimed at assessing some of the main aspects of the MANETs (mobile ad-hoc networks) technology and possible security issues. This paper also suggests state-of-the-art security solutions in addition to mitigation actions those can be adopted to formulate better security of wireless communication systems. Introduction As the significance of network and computer communication technologies in our everyday life augments it as well poses new requirements for connectivity. However, the traditional wired technology and communication solutions have been there for an extensive era but there is increasing need of operational and working wireless systems and solutions in all the areas of life such as study, using internet, sending E-mail messages, altering data and information in a convention and so on. However, there exist diverse solutions regarding technology systems to fulfill these requirements. In this scenario, solution could be wireless LAN that is designed on the basis of IEEE 802.11 standard.. On the other hand, there is increasing need or demand for connectivity in circumstances where there is no backbone link or else base station accessible, for instance when two or additional Personal Digital Assistants require to be linked (Rashmi, 2008). MANETs (Mobile ad hoc networks) have intrinsically come up with diverse characteristics as compared to the conventional wired arrangement. However, mobile ad hoc networks have attained considerably growing attention, somewhat due to the possible establishment of the Mobile ad hoc networks to countless purposes. On the other hand, network security is still a vital issue in a mobile ad hoc network which is one of its fundamental weaknesses (Jangra, Goel, Priyanka, & Bhatia, 2010). Mobile ad hoc networks can be established at any place without some particular need for outside arrangement (similar to base stations or wires). Since they are frequently mobile and that is why a term Ã¢â¬Ëmobile ad hoc networksÃ¢â¬â¢ is frequently employed when talking on the subject of Ad-hoc networks. Moreover, mobile ad hoc networks are frequently expressed as a self-governing system of mobile routers (as well as linked terminals) which are connected to each other through wireless connection, the merger of that shapes a casual chart. In this scenario, th e networkÃ¢â¬â¢s routers can be moved randomly and standardize themselves impartially; as a result,